The ACT's Greens government is going to use contraceptives in a new bid to control problem kangaroos in what is believed to be an Australian first.
Shooting will still continue to keep on top of kangaroo populations but the ACT government is looking to respond to the controversy over its annual cull.
The $1.2 million "fertility control" program will be rolled out to "enable non-lethal management" in some of Canberra's parks.
It will involve shooting female kangaroos with darts to anaesthetize them and then injecting with a fertility control by hand.
Kangaroo culling has long been a ticklish topic in the nation's capital and the Greens came to power in 2020 promising to fix up the problem.
But the government has been wrestling with the need to protect "precious eco-systems" on the ACT's nature reserves which would be risked if culling was to be banned.
"The ACT wants to make sure our kangaroo management practices are the most humane in the country," Minister Rebecca Vassarotti said.
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"We know we need to address over population in ecologically sensitive areas and we have been working for decades to trial non-lethal methods.
"While it is challenging, the majority of the Canberra community understands the need to manage our kangaroo populations in our nature reserves to protect biodiversity.
The government will use the GonaCon Immunocontraceptive vaccine as a long-lasting fertility control treatment for female kangaroos.
Recent trials of GonaCon are showing that approximately 80 per cent of female kangaroos remain infertile five years after treatment, the government said.
"Today's announcement marks the transition from small-scale trials of GonaCon to broader management use, with the vaccine to be utilised across multiple sites over time," Ms Vassarotti said.
"The use of the GonaCon vaccine at selected sites is expected to reduce population growth rates and decrease the amount of conservation culling required in future."
ACT Conservator for Flora and Fauna Ian Walker said kangaroos will be fitted with ear tags for monitoring purposes.
"In future, GonaCon will also be administered remotely using a dart that simultaneously injects GonaCon and sprays a marking paint on the fur of the animal.
"Fertility control methods are best suited to relatively small, discrete populations with minimal immigration, so culling will continue to be required as part of our ongoing kangaroo management."
About 1500 kangaroos are expected to be culled this winter.
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